FIFTIETH YEAR OF THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT SALEM, MASS. 1903-1904 BOSTON : WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 18 Post Office Square. 1904. Approved by The State Board of Publication. State Board of Education. Established 1837. His Excellency JOHN L. BATES. His Honor CURTIS GUILD, Jr. Kate Gannett Wells, . Clinton Q. Richmond, A.B., George I. Aldrich, A.M., Elmer H. Capen, D.D., LL.D Albert E. Winship, Litt.D., George H. Conley, A.M., Boston, . North Adams, Brookline, Tufts College, Somerville, Boston, Caroline Hazard, A.M., Litt.D., Wellesley, Joel D. Miller, A.M., Leominster, term expires. May 25, 1904. May 25, 1905. May 25, 1906. May 25, 1907. May 25, 1908. May 25, 1909. May 25, 1910. May 25, 1911. OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION. , Secretary, Caleb B. Tillinghast, A.M., Clerk and Treasurer, John T. Prince, Ph.D., Agent, . Grenville T. Fletcher, A.M., Agent, Ellis Peterson, A.M., Agent, . James W. MacDonald, A.M., Agent, L. Walter Sargent, Agent, Boston . Newtonville. Northampton. Jamaica Plain. Stoneham. Boston. BOARD OF VISITORS. Elmer H. Capen, D.D., LL.D. George I. Aldrich, A.M. Instructors. WALTER PARKER BECKWITH, Ph.D., . . Principal. Theory and Practice of Teaching, History of Education. Ellen Maria Dodge, English Literature. Harriet Lane Martin, Jessie Putnam Learoyd, . Charles Eugene Adams, . Charles Frederick Whitney, William Charles Moore, S.B., Mary Alice Warren, . . Biology, Isabella Gertrude Knight, A.B., . Gertrude Brown Goldsmith, A.B., Fannie Boutelle Deane, Secretary, Sarah Louise Baker, . Helen Hood Rogers, . Cassie Lucretia Paine, Fred Willis Archibald, Alice May Kyle, . . Algehra, Geometry. Botany, English. . Physics, Chemistry. Drawing. . Geology, Geography. Physiology, Physical Training. Library. . Biology, Psychology. History, English. English Literature, Arithmetic. Reading, Physical Training. Critic. Music. . Assistant in Mineralogy. Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades. MODEL SCHOOLS. Maud Sarah Wheeler, ..... Mabel Towne Burnham, Maude Muller Brickett, Bessie Jordan Welch, Mabel Lucile Hobbs, Fourth Grade. Mary Elizabeth James, Third Grade. Delia Frances Campbell, Second Grade. Helen Merrill Dillingham, . . . . . . First Grade. Louise Farrington, Kindergarten. Helen Louise Gray (Assistant), Kindergarten. Calendar for 1904=1905. Spring Recess. From close of school on Friday, April 1, 1904, to Tuesday, April 12, 1904, at 9.20 a.m. Graduation. Tuesday, June 21, 1904, at 2.30 p.m. First Entrance Examinations. Thursday and Friday, June 23 and 24, 1904, at 9 a.m. Semicentennial Celebration. Thursday, June 30, 1904, at 2.30 p.m. Triennial Reunion. Friday, July 1, 1904. Second Entrance Examinations. Tuesday and Wednesday, Sept. 6 and 7, 1904, at 9 a.m. Beginning of School Year, Thursday, Sept. 8, 1904, at 9.20 a.m. Thanksgiving Recess. From Wednesday, 12 m., preceding Thanksgiving Day, to the following Tuesday, at 9.20 a.m. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Christmas Recess. From close of school Friday, Dec. 23, 1904, to Tuesday, Jan. 3, 1905, at 9.20 a.m. Beginning of Second Half=year. Tuesday, Jan. 24, 1905. Spring Recess. From close of school on Friday, March 31, 1905, to Tuesday, April 11, 1905, at 9.20 a.m. Graduation. Tuesday, June 27, 1905, at 2.30 p.m. First Entrance Examinations. Thursday and Friday, June 29 and 30, 1905, at 9 a.m. Second Entrance Examinations. Tuesday and Wednesday, Sept. 12 and 13, 1905, at 9 a.m. Note. —The regular weekly holiday of the school is on Monday, but the model schools conform to the practice of the other public schools in Salem, and have their holiday on Saturday. The model schools open the second week in Septem- ber and close on June 30. Vacations during the school year are from Christmas to New Year's, inclusive, and for the week beginning with the first Monday in April. The telephone call of the school is "Salem, 375." The principal's residence is at 285 Lafayette Street, and his telephone call is " Salem, 156-2." State Normal School, Salem, Mass. As the current school year will complete the first half-century of the existence of this school, it seems fitting to make this catalogue somewhat historical in its nature. It appears that the first suggestion of a normal school at Salem was made by Hon. Charles W. Upham, then mayor of the city, in 1852. A new location for the school then existing at West Newton was The Salem Normal School— 1854. being sought by the State Board of Education. As a result of Mr. Upham's suggestion, the Board was invited to consider Salem, but the decision was at last in favor of Framingham. The Board, however, at the same time voted to recommend to the Legislature the establishment of a new school in the county of Essex. According to the recommendation of the Board, a resolve was passed by the Legislature and approved April 16, 1853, grant- ing an appropriation for the above purpose, and leaving to the 8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Board itself the selection of a suitable location. Salem pro- posed to provide a site, erect and furnish the building to the acceptance of the Board, receiving therefor the State appropria- tion of $6,000, and the contribution of $2,000 from the Eastern Railroad Company. The Board of Education accepted this proposition on June 2, 1853. The site selected was on the corner of Broad and Sum- mer streets, formerly occupied by the Registry of Deeds. On The Salem Normal School — i860. Sept. 3, 1853, the work of taking down the old building began. The school building itself was dedicated on Sept. 14, 1854, Gov. Emory Washburn presiding, and Hon. George S. Bout- well, of the State Board of Education, delivering the address. The total cost of the building and site was estimated at $17,600. An extra appropriation of $2,500 was afterwards made by the Legislature, to provide for fencing and grading the grounds and for additional furniture, books, etc. The first class of students was admitted to the school on the day previous to the dedication of the building. It consisted of sixty-five members, a number afterwards increased by latecomers to seventy-two. In 1860 the school building was much improved by raising the roof and by constructing a partial third story, which pro- vided several additional rooms. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 9 The number of pupils in the school having largely increased, the Board of Education in 1869 made such a representation of the wants of the school that an appropriation of $25,000 was granted for enlarging the building. While the work was going on the school occupied a part of the high school building, the use of which had been granted by the city authorities. The enlargement was completed in June, 1871, and the building served the purposes of the school for over twenty-five years. J0&UJ. I •**CM*M0* <>*•** The Salem Normal School — 1871. The accommodations finally proved inadequate to meet the increased demands made upon modern normal schools. The Legislature of the Commonwealth, therefore, in response to the representations and requests of the Board of Visitors and of the principal of the school, made generous provisions for a new building. The preparation of plans was entrusted to J. Philip Rinn, A.M., of Boston, an architect who had already won distinction in the erection of buildings of a public character. Mr. Rinn entered cordially into the desires of the faculty of the school, and from the beginning manifested a determination to secure a building which would present not only an imposing exterior but an interior adapted to every modern necessity. He was unre- mitting and constant in his attention to every detail of the work ; as a consequence, it is believed that the Commonwealth possesses 10 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. a building the most complete and convenient in its appointments of any structure of its kind in the country. Work was begun upon the new building in November, 1893, and it was first occupied by the school Dec. 2, 1896. Formal dedicatory exercises were held Jan. 26, 1897, on which occasion, Rev. Elmer H. Capen, D.D., chairman of the Board of Visitors, presided, and the chief address was delivered by Prof. John Bascom of Williamstown. An historical sketch of the school was read by Miss Ellen M. Dodge, the senior teacher. The other speakers were Attorney-General Hosea M. Knowlton, representing the Commonwealth ; Mayor James H. Turner of Salem; Hon. Alfred S. Roe, chairman of the legislative com- mittee on education ; Rev. Albert E. Winship of Somerville ; Principal Albert G-. Boyden of Bridgewater; and Secretary Frank A. Hill of the Board of Education. THE TRIENNIAL REUNION AND SEMICENTENNIAL. The triennial reunion, which would regularly have been held last year, was postponed so that it might be combined with the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary. June 30 and July 1 have been fixed as the dates for these events. On the afternoon of June 30 the semi-centennial exercises will be held, and the following day will be devoted to the reunion. The full particu- lars of the occasion will be announced iu due season. A general catalogue of the officers, teachers and students has been printed, and is now ready. Additional data are desired, and if the material furnished is sufficient, a supple- ment will be issued in two or three years which will be sent to all purchasers of the general catalogue who furnish their names and addresses. THE TEACHERS AND THE STUDENTS. The school has had four principals, as follows : — Richard Edwards, 1854-1857 Alpheus Crosby, 1857-1865 Daniel Barnard Hagar, 1865-1896 Walter Parker Beck with, 1896- RICHARD EDWARDS. First Principal, 1854-1857. ALPHEUS CROSBY. Second Principal, 1857-1865. > DANIEL BARNARD HAGAR. Third Principal, 1865-1896. / WALTER PARKER BECKWITH. Fourth Principal, 1896- STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 11 i The whole number of persons connected with the school as assistant teachers has been seventy-one, of whom, so far as known, fifty-six are now living. The present number of teach- ers, including the principal, is sixteen. The development of the model schools began in 1897, and nineteen persons have been connected with them as teachers. The present number required is ten. Nearly five thousand students have attended the school, of whom fifty-five per cent, have graduated. The proportion of students who complete the regular course has steadily increased. Since 1896 over seventy-two per cent, of all who have entered the school have graduated. No change is more marked than that found in the better preparation of candidates for admission. In 1879, at the cele- bration of the twenty-fifth anniversary, the principal noted as an encouraging circumstance the fact that, of the four pre- ceding classes, half came from high schools and one-third were graduates. All candidates at the present time are graduates of four years' courses in high schools. In addition to the better preparation, a higher average age is thus assured. With the establishment of colleges for women during the last twenty-five years, it has naturally happened that very few young women come to the school who have no very firm or definite in- tention of teaching. Those who are seeking personal culture, merely, enter the colleges. But there has been no great change in the stations in life from which the large majority of the stu- dents come. For the past ten years, over seventy per cent, of the fathers of the students were either farmers, mechanics, merchants, salesmen, or foremen of some kind. It is practically impossible to determine with any useful de- gree of accuracy the amount of teaching done by the graduates of the school. A few facts can be given, however, and these may be, in some sense, an indication of the general situation. Of the first class to enter the school, three members are still teaching. During the incumbency of the present principal there have been 486 graduates. Among these the number who have not taught at all does not exceed 20, and more than 425 12 STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. are known to be now teaching. Of those not teaching, most are married, a few are dead, a few are attending other institu- tions, a few are in other kinds of business, and a few have failed. It is also to be remembered that a considerable num- ber of the non-graduates have taught and are still teaching. The officers of the Salem Normal Association for the current term are as follows : — President. — Dr. W. P. Beckwith, Salem, principal of the school. Vice-President. — Miss Harriet L. Martin, Salern (Class XXIII.). First Secretary. — Mrs. Abbie R. Hood, Beverly (Class LVIL). Second Secretary. — Miss Dorothea C. Sawtelle, Peabody (Class LXVIII.). Treasurer. — Miss Maud S. Wheeler, Salem (Class LVIL). Directors. — Miss Mary E. Webb, Salem (Class III.) ; Miss Jessie P. Learoyd, Danvers (Class LI.) ; Mrs. Mary A. Tenney, Brookline (Class LXIX.) ; Miss Martha P. Ober, Salem (Class XLVII.) ; MissE. Adelaide Towle, Salem (Class XXVIII.) . THE SCHOOL BUILDING. The new building is located in the southern part of the city, — a section devoted chiefly to residential purposes, — in a com- manding position at the junction of the electric car lines from Lvnn and Marblehead. It is constructed of buff brick, with light-colored stone and terra-cotta trimmings, and it has three stories and a basement. Facing northward, it is 180 feet in length from east to west, and the two wings are each 140 feet from north to south. In the basement are located the heating and ventilating apparatus, the toilet and play rooms for the pupils of the model schools, besides a fine gymnasium with its adjoining dressing room ; the industrial laboratory, bicycle room, lunch room, and store rooms for supplies and materials. On the first floor, in the central part of the structure, are the toilet and cloak rooms, furnished with individual lockers, for the use of the normal students. Access to this portion of the building is provided by means of two outside doors. In each wing is another entrance for the pupils of the model schools. The rooms for these schools — nine in number, besides six recitation rooms connected with them — are upon the east, south and west sides, and are all large and well lighted. Including STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 13 the kindergarten, they are intended to accommodate more than 300 pupils. The central portion of the second floor is occupied by the fine assembly and study room of the normal school. It is about 60 by 85 feet in size, and can accommodate 250 single desks and chairs. The remainder of the floor contains the principal's office, reception room, teachers' meeting room, retiring room, text-book room, library, and other recitation and work rooms. The third floor is largely devoted to the various departments of science, including physics, chemistry, botany, geography, mineralogy and zoology. One of the features is an excellent lecture room, with seats arranged in tiers, for lectures or similar work. Two fine rooms on the north side furnish admirable accommodations for the work in drawing. One of the most conspicuous features of the building is found in the size and lighting of the rooms. In fact, it is hard to see how the lighting could be improved. The corridors are also noticeable for their width and cheerful aspect. The windows are many and lofty, and the glass is of the finest and clearest quality. The heating and ventilating plant is ample ; the blackboards, entirely of slate, are generous in size ; combination gas and electric chandeliers are provided for lighting ; from the princi- pal's office speaking tubes radiate to all the important rooms ; while a program clock, with its electric appliances, regulates the movements of the school. The interior finish throughout is of handsome oak, and all the furniture of the building is in keeping. Upon the walls are many handsome pictures and other artistic decorations, provided by the State, by past stu- dents and teachers of the school and by other generous friends, to whom due acknowledgment is made on another page. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. Candidates for admission must, if young women, have at- tained the age of sixteen years, and if young men, the age of seventeen years. Their fitness for admission will be deter- mined : — 14 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. (1) By their standing in a physical examination. (2) By their moral character. (3) By their high school record. (4) By a written examination. (5) By an oral examination. Physical Examination. The State Board of Education adopted the following vote March 7, 1901 : — That the visitors of the several normal schools be authorized and directed to provide for a physical examination of candidates for admission to the normal schools, in order to determine whether they are free from any dis- ease or infirmity which would unfit them for the office of teacher, and also to examine any student at any time in the course, to determine whether his physical condition is such as to warrant his continuance in the school. Moral Character. Candidates must present certificates of good moral character. In deciding whether they shall prepare themselves to become teachers, candidates should note that the vocation requires more than mere freedom from disqualifying defects ; it demands vir- tues of a positive sort that shall make their impress for good upon those who are taught. High School Record. It may be said, in general, that if the ordinary work of a good statutory high school is well done, candidates should have no difficulty in meeting the academic tests to which they may be subjected. They cannot be too earnestly urged, however, to avail themselves of the best high school facilities attainable in a four years' course, even though they should pursue studies to an extent not insisted on, or take studies not prescribed, in the ad- mission requirements. The importance of a good record in the high school cannot be overestimated. Principals are requested to furnish the normal schools with records of the high school standing of candidates. The stronger the evidence of character, scholarship and prom- STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 15 ise, of whatever kind, candidates bring, especially from schools of high reputation and from teachers of good judgment and fear- less expression, the greater confidence they may have in guard- ing themselves against the contingencies of an examination and of satisfying the examiners as to their fitness. Written Examination. The examinations will embrace papers on the following groups of subjects, a single paper with a maximum time allow- ance of two hours to cover each of groups I., II. and IV., and a single paper with a maximum time allowance of one hour to cover each of groups III. and V. (Jive papers with a maximum time allowance of eight hours) : — I. Language. — (a) English, with its grammar and litera- ture, and (b) either Latin or French. II. Mathematics. — (a) Algebra and (6) plane geometry. III. United States History. — The history and civil govern- ments of Massachusetts and the United States, with related geography and so much of English history as is directly con- tributory to a knowledge of United States history. IV. Science. — (a) Physiology and hygiene and (fr) and (c) any two of the following, — physics, chemistry, physical geog- raphy and botany, provided one of the two selected is either physics or chemistry. V. Drawing and Music. — (a) Elementary mechanical and free-hand drawing with any one of the topics, — form, color and arrangement, and-(6) music. Oral Examination. Each candidate will be required to read aloud in the presence of the examiners. He will also be questioned orally either upon some of the foregoing subjects or upon other matters within his experience, in order that the examiners may gain some impression about his personal characteristics and his use of language, as well as give him an opportunity to furnish any evidences of qualification that might not otherwise become known to them. 16 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. General Requirement in English for all Examinations. No candidates will be accepted whose ivritten English is not- ably deficient in clear and accurate expression, spelling, punctua- tion, idiom or division of paragraphs, or ichose spoken English exhibits faults so serious as to make it inexpedient for the normal school to attempt their correction. The candidate's English, therefore, in all oral and written examinations will be subject to the requirements implied in the statement here made, and marked accordingly. Special Directions for the Written Examinations. Group I. — Language. (a) English. — The subjects for examination in English will be the same as those agreed upon by the colleges and high technical schools of New England, and now quite generally adopted throughout the United States. 1 . Reading and Practice. — A limited number of books will be set for reading. The candidate will be required to present evidence of a general knowledge of the subject-matter and spirit of the books, and to answer simple questions on the lives of the authors. The form of examination will usually be the writing of a paragraph or two on each of a few topics to be chosen by the candidate from a considerable number set before him in the examination paper. In place of a part or the whole of this test, the candidate may present an exercise book prop- erly certified by his instructor, containing compositions or other written work done in connection with the reading of the books. The books set for this part of the examination are : — 1904-1905. — Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice and Julius Caesar ; The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers in The Spec- tator ; Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield; Coleridge's The Ancient Mariner ; Scott's Ivanhoe; Tennyson's The Princess; Lowell's The Vision of Sir Launfal ; George Eliot's Silas Mar- ner ; Carlyle's Essay on Burns. 2. Study and Practice. — This part of the examination pre- supposes a more careful study of each of the works named STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 17 below. The examination will be upon subject-matter, form and structure. In addition, the candidate may be required to answer ques- tions involving the essentials of English grammar, and questions on the leading facts in those periods of English literary history to which the prescribed works belong. The books set for this part of the examination are : — 1904-1905. — Shakespeare's Macbeth; Milton's Lycidas, Comus, L' Allegro, II Penseroso ; Burke's Speech on Conciliation ivith America; Macaulay's Essays on Milton and Addison. (b) Either Latin or French. — The translation at sight of simple prose or verse, with questions on the usual forms, and ordinary constructions, and the writing of simple prose based in part or in full on the passage selected. II. — Mathematics. (a) The elements of algebra through affected quadratic equations. (b) The elements of plane geometry. While there is no formal examination in arithmetic the im- portance of a practical working acquaintance with its principles and processes cannot be too strongly emphasized. The candi- date's proficiency in this subject will be incidentally tested in its applications to other subjects. In geometry, the candidate's preparatory study should include independent solutions and demonstrations, — work that shall throw him upon his own resources ; and his ability to do such work will be tested in the examination. An acquaintance with typical solid forms is also important, — enough at least, to en- able the candidate to name and define them and to recognize the relations borne to them by the lines, planes, angles and figures of plane geometry. III. — United States History. Any school text-book on United States history will enable candidates to meet this requirement, provided they study enough of geography to illumine the history, and make themselves 18 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. familiar with the grander features of government in Massachu- setts and the United States. Collateral reading in United States history is strongly advised — also in English history so far as this history bears conspicuously on that of the United States. IV. — Science. (a) Physiology and Hygiene. — The chief elementary facts of anatomy, the general functions of the various organs, the more obvious rules of health, and the more striking effects of alcoholic drinks, narcotics and stimulants upon those addicted to their use. (b and c) Any Two of the Following Sciences, — Physics, Chemistry, Botcuiy and Physical Geography, provided One of the Two is either Physics or Chemistry. — The chief elementary facts of the subjects selected, so far as they may be presented in the courses usually devoted to them in good high schools. It will be a distinct advantage to the candidate if his preparation in- cludes a certain amount of individual laboratory work. A laboratory note-book, with the teacher's endorsement that it is a true record of the candidate's work, will be accepted as partial evidence of attainments in the science with which it deals. The original record should be so well kept as to make copying unnecessary. V. — Drawing and Music. (a) Drawing. — Mechanical and free-hand drawing, — enough to enable the candidates to draw a simple object, like a box or a pyramid or a cylinder, with plan and elevation to scale, and to make a free-hand sketch of the same in perspective. Also any one of the three topics, — form, color and arrangement. (b) Music. — Such elementary facts as an instructor should know in teaching singing in the schools, — including major and minor keys, simple two, three, four and six part measures, the fractional divisions of the pulse or beat, chromatics, the right use of the foregoing elements in practice, and the translation into musical notation of simple melodies or time phrases sung or played. ATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 19 Division of Examinations. C candidates may be admitted to a preliminary examination a year in advance of their final examination, provided they offer themselves in one or more of the following groups, each group to he presented in fall : — 1 1 . Mathemati III. United Stales history. IV - ; : - ... : - = V. Drawing and music. Preliminary examinations can be taken in June on." Every candidate for a preliminary examination must present a certificate of preparation in the group, or groups chosen, or in the subjects thereof. See blank at end of this catalogue.) The group known as I. Language must be reserved for the final examinations. It will doubtless be found 2enerallv ad- - -able in practice that the group known as IV. s e -hould also be so reserved. Candidates for the final or complete examinations are ear- nestly advised to present themselves, so far as practicable, in June. Division of the final or complex- -x:\minations between June and September is permissible, but it is important both for the normal school and for the candidate that the work laid out for the September examinations, which so closely precede the opening of the school, shall be kept down to a minimum. Equivalents. Persons desiring to enter the school, whose course of study has been equivalent to, but not identical with, the requirements of admission are advised to correspond with the principal. Each case will be considered upon its merits, and in deciding the question of admission there will be a serious effort to give all the credit that is due. Experience in teaching, according to its amount and kind, is regarded as very valuable. 20 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Special Students. College graduates, graduates of normal schools, and other persons of suitable attainments, also those who have had con- siderable experience in teaching, may by arrangement with the principal select a year's work from the regular program. If this work embraces not less than twenty recitation periods per week, and includes the courses in psychology and in the theory and practice of teaching, the student will receive a certificate for the same upon its satisfactory completion. Prompt and regular attendance is exacted of special students, as well as of those in the regular course. A definite statement of the applicant's purpose in desiring to enter the school is required, and those who do not intend to remain at least one half year are requested not to apply. The design of the school does not include the admission of transient students, for the purpose of taking partial or special courses, except in cases which are really exceptional. Personal culture for its own sake is not the end for which the school receives its students. It exists and will be administered for the training and improvement of teachers, and all its facilities will be put to their utmost use for the advantage of teachers. Thus, during recent years, many teachers have been allowed to attend the exercises in selected departments, — so far as the privilege could be granted without injury to regular class work, — although their names have not appeared in the catalogue as students. In other cases it is sometimes found possible for those who have had experience in teaching, without a previous normal course, to enter the school and derive great benefit from a half year's work. Some of our most earnest students have been of this class. But special students who do not intend to identify themselves with the school are not desired. Neither is there room for those who do not have a serious purpose of study and self-improvement, but who wish rather to secure a brief nominal membership in a normal school, in order to obtain a better position. STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 21 Students from outside the State. Non-resideDts of this Commonwealth who are able to satisfy the requirements for admission may be admitted as students on payment of fifty dollars per year, of which sum one-half is payable at the beginning of the year, and the other half at the middle of the year. Elementary Course of Study. The elementary course of study is designed primarily for those who aim to teach in the public schools below the high school grade. It comprises substantially the following sub- jects : — I. The study of the educational values of the following subjects, and of the principles and methods of teaching them : — (a) English, — reading, oral and written composition, gram- mar, rhetoric, English and American literature. (6) Mathematics, — arithmetic and book-keeping, algebra, plane geometry. (c) History, — history and civil polity of the United States and of Massachusetts. (d) Science, — physics, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, geography, physiology and hygiene. (e) Drawing, vocal music, physical training, manual training. II. (a) The study of man, body and mind, for the principles of education ; the study of the application of these principles in school organization, school government, and in the art of teach- ing ; the history of education ; the school laws of Massachusetts. (b) Observation and practice. The time required for the completion of this course depends upon the students. It may not exceed two years for those of satisfactory preparation and superior ability ; for others, three years are needed to do the work properly. In many cases more than two years are insisted upon. A diploma is given when the course is satisfactorily completed. 22 STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Conditions of Graduation. The school does not accept the satisfactory accomplishment of the class work required as constituting a complete title to a diploma. While the fact is recognized that predictions regard- ing the success or failure of normal school students as teachers always involve a greater or less degree of uncertainty, it is nev- ertheless felt that the school owes its chief responsibility to the Commonwealth. Its duty is not fully discharged by the appli- cation of academic tests ; certain personal qualities are so essen- tial and their absence so fatal to success in teaching that the candidate for graduation must be judged in part from the stand- point of personality. It is the aim of the school — and this is insisted upon year by year with increasing strictness — not to bestow its diploma upon those who are likely to be unable in ordinary school work to use the English language with ease and correctness. The power of the student to teach, so far as that can be ascertained and judged, is of course an essential element in the problem, and those who are manifestly unable to do so will not be allowed to graduate, whatever their academic proficiency may be. THE MODEL DEPARTMENT. [Miss Paine, Critic] In co-operation with the school committee of the city of Salem, the State normal school maintains in its building a system of model schools, beginning with a kindergarten, and intended to train pupils to the point of entering the local high school. The system is now complete, and the first class, consisting of eleven members, graduated last summer. The teachers are nominated by the principal of the normal school, with the approval of the Board of Visitors, and they are elected by the city school com- mittee. The assignment of pupils is in the hands of the local authorities, and the children do not constitute a picked company. The aim has been to secure in these schools as nearly as pos- sible the actual conditions existing in public schools of a high H X m 3J STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 23 class. It is an essential part of the plan upon which they are conducted that they are to be kept at a reasonable size. The school-rooms themselves are of ample dimensions, well lighted, thoroughly ventilated, furnished with approved furniture and other appliances for work, and provided with sanitary conveni- ences of the best kind. By the generosity and interest of many parents they are also provided with beautiful decora- tions. In planning the instruction in these schools the aim is to con- nect it as closely as possible with the work in the normal school, to the end that the art of teaching may here exemplify the theory in which the normal students are taught. About half of the instruction from the fifth grade upwards is arranged upon the departmental plan, and a large part is either supervised or actually given by normal school instructors. The critic teacher devotes her entire time to supervising the normal school students in their relations to the model schools. Her intimate acquaintance with the work of the schools in their various departments and her duties as a supervisor make it easy to guard in the most efficient manner the interests of the children. The regular teachers are selected solely by reason of their efficiency, and the facilities whose use is made possible by the connection between the model schools and the normal school are put to their greatest service. While nothing is allowed to stand in the way of obtaining the most satisfactory results, it is believed that both directly and indirectly the stu- dents of the normal school derive great advantage from their association with the teachers and pupils of the model schools. First Graduating Class of the Model Schools. Raymond Wilson Bissell. William Henry Conway. Ralph Crocker. Lucy Mears Eveleth. Raymond John Fiske. Bradshaw Langmaid. Edna Somers Legro. Norma Munsey. Helen Hollis Newell. Margaret Jane Page. Anna Merrill Pickering. 24 STATE XOBMAL SCHOOL. SALEM. AIM AND SCOPE OF THE COURSE OF STUDY. English and American Literature. [Miss Dodge, — Miss Baker.] Four periods per week throughout the first year of the course are devoted to this work. This assigumeut of time is based upon the belief that literature constitutes a very important branch of one of the great divisions of thought-giving material, and that it is worthy of an earlier and more extended treat- ment than it commonly receives in the public schools. It is believed that it is reasonable to expect a marked growth of appreciative power and insight from the high school graduates who constitute the junior class in this school. It is difficult to estimate justly and surely the increase of such ability, but the prime aim is to promote it. Such a result will make the future teachers more inspiring and helpful to their pupils ; and, while the course cannot fail to broaden the acquaintance and sympathy of the normal students with all kinds of good literature, the methods of using the same in all kinds and grades of schools will not be overlooked. Believing that literature should and will hold a more promi- nent place as subject-matter in school courses of study, there will be an attempt so to conduct this department as to formu- ate a course in literature suitable to the interest and profit of children in the primary and grammar schools. This attempt has often been made, but there is hardly as yet so general an agreement that valuable results may not be expected from further consideration and experiment. Language and Grammar. [Miss Learoyd, — Miss Deane.] During the first half of the year the class discuss the best methods of training children to speak and write English cor- rectly and fluently. Suggestions are given concerning descrip- tions in connection with nature study, stories and descriptions from suitable pictures, copying, dictation, letter writing, and STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 25 reproduction of daily lessons in either study, and of classic stories, such as fables, myths, legends, and historical and biographical tales. An attempt is made to awaken the class to a knowledge of their own deficiencies in the use of English and to show them the way to improvement. Especial atten- tion is paid to simple narration and description, both oral and written. The course in elementary language lessons is followed by a course in technical grammar, in which an effort is made to show that rules governing speech should be evolved from a knowledge of forms already acquired. By carefully graded steps the stu- dents are led to understand the sentence and its construction, the classification of words from the observation of their uses in the sentence, inflection, analysis and parsing. Members of the class present the various topics to a class of pupils selected from their own number, and the best method of proceeding with younger pupils is discussed. Reading and Voice Training. [Miss Rogers.] The work of this department must necessarily be two- fold ; (1) the personal training and culture of the student, and (2) the practical training in methods of teaching reading in primary and grammar schools. The object of oral reading is to give to others the thought and spirit of the author. The reader must get behind the words to the thought which they represent; he must realize and ap- preciate this thought, and then, by the voice, awaken in others a sympathetic response. During the first year the work is directed toward the personal training of the student. Exercises in breathing, tone produc- tion and articulation are given, for the purpose of getting pure and sympathetic tones and clear and distinct utterance. The study of phonetics is begun. The work in reading is correlated with that in literature. The selections read have been first studied as literature, so that in this department the mind may be chiefly occupied with the oral interpretation of the author. 26 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALE M. In the second year attention is especially directed to the pedagogical aspect of the subject. Yocal exercises and prac- tice in reading are continued, but the object in view is to train the student to teach reading. Methods are discussed, and ob- servations and written reports of reading lessons in various grades of schools are required. Story-telling is practised, pro- fessional reading is required, and text-books- are reviewed. Elementary Latin. A course will be offered annually, if a reasonable number of students desire it, for the benefit of special and advanced stu- dents who wish to be prepared to teach Latin in the upper grades of the grammar schools. Three years of good work in Latin will be necessary for those who take the course, and more is de- sirable. It is intended that the course deal chiefly with methods of teaching, and with that purpose in view the amount of previ- ous study, above indicated, will be assumed. Elementary Numbers and Arithmetic. [Miss Baker.] These two courses extend throughout the senior year, the first half being devoted to the primary work and the second to that which is more advanced. Elementary Numbers. — As concepts result from an acquain- tance with vizualized form, this work is based entirely on objects. Number is the measure of quantity. Quantity is symbolized in geometrical material, and measuring is the controlling element of the system. The units of measurement are the inch, square inch and one inch cube, the objective work thus being put into the three realms of length, surface and volume. All abstract combinations are preceded by constructive effort, and, in fact, construction goes hand in hand with measuring in forming the basis of the system. Advanced Arithmetic. — This subject is understood as in- cluding percentage and the applications of percentage, men- suration properly belonging to geometry, and evolution and STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 27 involution to algebra. Hence commission and brokerage, bank- ing, stocks and bonds and interest, are some of the important parts of the work. It is not the purpose to treat these topics after the manner of a commercial school, neither is it intended to deal with them in an impractical way, inconsistent with that of the business world. The aim is to treat them as they occur in actual transactions, irrespective of text-book boundaries. It is believed that the financial column of a newspaper should not be wholly unintelligible to a pupil leaving the grammar school. Students are required not only to give teaching exercises in their classes in the normal school, but also to present the same exercises to classes in the model schools. Geometry. [Miss Martin.] The course is planned to include (1 ) a review of demonstrative geometry and (2) a detailed study of concrete or observational geometry. The two are carried along together. In the demonstrative work special attention is given to securing exactness in reasoning and in expression. The aim is to help students to that mastery of the subject which may reasonably be expected of teachers in the elementary schools. In this condition the origin and development of the science are made a matter of study, and the scope and plan of the text- book in geometry are noted. The general object in this part of the work is to confirm and supplement and make exact the student's knowledge, to broaden his outlook, arouse fresh interest, and awaken a sense of the teacher's responsibility towards the subject. The course in concrete geometry develops the elementary definitions, and such of the simpler truths of the science as lend themselves to objective treatment. A topical outline in the hands of students furnishes a basis for discussion of methods of work and the selection and arrangement of material. The leading text-books in this department are reviewed, and to some extent practically tested. Laboratory work and field work 28 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. are prominent features. The general aim is to put students in possession of approved methods of teaching in elementary schools those parts of geometry which by general consent are adapted therefor. Algebra. [Miss Martix.] The general purpose is to review and supplement the student's kuowledge of the subject-matter, and to establish clear and simple methods of teaching the more elementary topics. This involves (1) a thorough study of the processes underlying the solution of simple equations and the simpler forms of quad- ratics, (2) the discussion of methods of solution of equations of these types, and (3) the discussion of problems involving such equations with devices for making real to a class of be- ginners the conditions of a problem. The aim is to develop facility in algebraic operations, to give an intelligent grasp of the subject, and to form the habit of regarding it from the teacher's point of view. United States History. [Miss Deane.] The time devoted to the study of United States history has been increased quite materially, and certain lines of work are in process of development for which there has not hitherto been any opportunity. Sufficient work will be done to indicate the right methods of studying and teaching history in general. As time admits, and for the purpose of illustration, selected periods or events will be studied. The uses of the abundant material dealing with the period of exploration and settlement in stimulating the imagination of children and in training them to the right use of language w ill be shown. A connected series of lessons, beginning with the lowest grades, will be outlined for the purpose of showing how, by what means and to what extent the elements of history, and, later, history itself, may be taught in the different periods of school life. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 29 Chemistry and Physics. [Mr. Adams.] Objects. — (1) Training the student to observe; to express what has been observed, — orally, by writing and by drawing; to draw correct conclusions from his own observations and from data collected by others ; to follow directions ; to manipulate apparatus skilfully ; and to acquire habits of carefulness, accu- racy and neatness. (2) An acquaintance with the most impor- tant facts of the science ; certain laws and principles based upon these facts ; some practical applications of these principles in machines and appliances useful to man ; a knowledge of cer- tain manipulations and processes, and the properties, uses and manufacture of the more common elements and compounds. (3) Familiarity with the method of teaching by experiments ; the art of correct questioning ; and ability to stand before others and guide their thinking. Means. — The ends enumerated are secured by a course of experiments selected and arranged so that most of the work can be done by each individual. Each student is provided with a note-book, and has a separate compartment at the labo- ratory bench. The chemical laboratory is equipped with slate tables, hot and cold water and individual fume closets. The physical laboratory is arranged for experiments in quantitative work. Both laboratories connect with a large lecture room, provided with roller shutters for darkening the room, and an electric lantern. The students have considerable practice in teaching before their classmates, and in examining them on the experimental work. While a part of the work is qualitative in nature, a consid- erable amount of quantitative work is taken up in both subjects, to give skill in accurate measuring and weighing. Constant emphasis is laid upon the necessity of viewing the work from the stand-point of the teacher. This practice gives professional value to the course, which cannot be obtained by work that is wholly academic. 30 STATE XOR3IAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Geology. [Mr. Moore, — Miss Kyle.] The course in geology aims to give a practical training in the recognition of the common minerals and rocks, and at the same time to illustrate the method of interesting children in this side of nature. The lessons begin with distinguishing and naming the building stones, rocks and minerals found near the homes of the pupils and in the neighborhood of the school build- ing. The general arrangement of the course is similar to that followed in the model schools connected with this institution ; but the lessons are planned from the stand -point of the mature student, and every effort is made to provide a kind of work that shall be both stimulating and strengthening. From the beginning an attempt is made to interest the student in the professional aspect of the work, and the relation of these les- sons to the needs of the future teacher is constantly borne in mind. This course also includes a study of soils, glacial phenomena and river and wave action, and affords in these particulars an excellent preparation for the subsequent work in geography. The normal school is situated in a locality which offers unusual opportunities for the carrying on of this work, and frequent excursions are made during the fall and spring months to the neighboring hills and sea shore. These out-door lessons are counted a most valuable part of the course, for, in addition to the peculiar training which they give, they serve to introduce the prospective teacher to a kind of work which it is hoped she will be able to do in a simple way with her own pupils. Botany. [Miss Learoyd.] This subject is pursued throughout the year. . The chief aim of the year's work is to present such a course of study as may be adapted to primary and grammar grades. The class study the various phases of plant life, according to the season, in the field and the laboratory, and supplement their observations by STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 31 reading and discussion in the class room. Thus the course of study becomes an actual experience. In addition to this elementary work, the class have the opportunity to study the lower forms of plant life, so that they may obtain a comprehensive view of plant forms and a general understanding of the evolution which has taken place in the plant world. With this knowledge they are better able to com- prehend the variety of forms which the organs of the plant assume among the higher plants, and to lead children more intel- ligently to discover the probable causes for the wonderful adap- tations among plants to light, temperature, moisture, soil and animals. When the class have become somewhat accustomed to meth- ods of working, they are expected to give most of the exercises in the class room, under the supervision of the instructor. In the senior year they observe the study of nature as conducted in the model schools, especially as a basis for language work. Geography. [Mr. Moore.] The course in geography is planned to give a thorough under- standing of the principles which underlie the most approved and progressive methods of teaching that subject to children. A strong feature of this course is the unity which exists be- tween the theoretical instruction of the normal school class room and the actual work accomplished with the children in the model schools. The normal school instructor in geography has charge of that subject in the model schools, and aims to make each part of the work a complement of the other. The locality in which the school building is situated is most fortunately provided with many illustrations helpful in the study of geography. Abundant material of a physiographic, indus- trial and commercial character is close at hand, and easily accessible both for the classes of children and for the normal school students. A study of the geographical significance of the local surface features, which includes not only their physiographic aspects, 32 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. but also their usefulness to man in furnishing a food supply, in affording suitable building sites and in determining lines of travel, forms the beginning of the work in geography. This study of the local geography provides the necessary experience for understanding distant geographical features and conditions. At the same time, the fact is recognized that a familiarity with the position and characteristics of the local sur- face features is a very necessary basis for taking the first steps in the reading of maps. The intelligent reading of the best maps is considered of especial importance, and receives great emphasis throughout the course. The close and constant association of the actual form or its picture with the appropriate map symbol is insisted upon as the natural means for cultivating the ability to visualize cor- rectly from maps of unknown regions. The importance of good pictures and other illustrative mate- rial in geography is discussed with considerable fulness, and the normal school students are drilled in the right methods of using these aids with young children. The study of the earth as a whole illustrates the methods used in the grades of correlating the world-wide views which the elementary pupils have been gaining from the study of pictures and by the use of the imagination. This work in- cludes lessons on the form, size and rotation of the earth ; its appearance in space ; the land and water divisions ; relief, drain- age, climate, productions and people. The methods of study- ing the continents and the leading nations are exemplified as completely as the limits of the course and the preparation of the pupils will allow. Biology. [Miss Warren, — Miss Goldsmith.] The aim of the work in biology is to lead the student to observe more carefully animate nature, to direct his investigations, and to enrich and ennoble his life by a greater love for the creatures that in endless variety form a part of his environment. The student becomes familiar with the theory of the evolution of STATE NORMAL SCHOOL SALEM. 33 animal life from the unicellular forms to the complex structure of man. Type forms are studied in detail. The laboratory method is used. A knowledge of external structure is gained by obser- vation ; of internal structure by dissection, drawing and read- ing. Particular attention is given to the adaptation of each organism to its environment. For further observation, living animals are kept in the school- room. A fine collection of specimens at the Peabody Academy of Science furnishes added facilities for carrying on the work. The course in biology is a preparation for a clearer and more comprehensive understanding of the anatomy, physiology and hygiene of the human body. Drawing. [Mr. Whitney.] It is the aim of this department to secure for the student as high a degree of the culture value of art as is practicable, and at the same time to emphasize its value in all the other departments of study. Realizing its industrial and aesthetic value to the teacher, the subject is treated in as broad a man- ner as the course permits. Drawing is studied under these three topics, — structure, enrichment and appearance: (1) structure, comprising meas- urement, geometry, projection, development and structural de- sign ; (2) enrichment, including color, historic ornament and design; (3) appearance, treating model and object drawing, nature drawing, color and picture study. No definite outline for the various grades of the public schools is given the students, but outlines for the work in the model schools are planned from month to month, and the students have the opportunity of observing and assisting in conducting the lessons. The courses in the other departments of the normal school, as well as the cycle of the year, dictate in a great degree the subject to be taken in the drawing and the time for that special branch. 34 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Ill September the classes begin the study of color, drawing of flowers, leaves, trees, fruit and seed ; also the study and drawing of birds, moths and shells. Throughout the year this method is followed, the intercourse with nature giving a keen appreciation of the beautiful. The study of landscape drawing and composition is related to the illustrative work for literature, and the mechanical branches assist in drawing of apparatus for chemistry and physics. The historic art aud picture study are closely related to the geography and history. In relating the drawing to the other departments, the aim is to remember the scientific value of the drawing and at the same time to emphasize the necessity of artistic rendering, the im- portance of good composition, proportion and unity. As a result of the art training in the normal school, there should come a broader culture, an appreciation of beauty of form and color, and some ability to express and create the beautiful; an appreciation of the practical value to the child, awakening thought, holding the attention and giving a free and spontaneous mode of expression. Music. [Mr. Archibald.] The work in this department is designed to enable students to teach such principles of music as will apply to the several grades of the public schools. Tune, time, technique and the aesthetics of music will be considered. The exemplification of these subjects will be observed in the model schools, and practice in these lines is afforded the student under the guidance of the regular grade teachers. A weekly drill in carefully selected choruses will be partici- pated in by the entire school. It is hoped that, in the future, entering students may be so prepared that a course in the histoiy of music may profitably be offered. in >■ o STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 35 Physical Training. [Miss Warren, — Miss Rogers.] The course in physical training, based on the Ling system, is, in theory and practice,, closely related to the practical part of the physiology work. Its aim in theory is to give the students a knowledge of mus- cular action and the distribution of blood to the various organs ; and in practice to correct faulty positions in sitting, standing and walking, by a development of the chest and right carriage of the chest and head. Special stress is laid upon proper breathing. The spacious gymnasium is equipped with stall bars and "benches, double boms, jumping standards, balance beams, ver- tical ropes, a Swedish ladder and a horse. The drill includes floor work, exercises with apparatus and gymnastic games. The floor work includes all the fundamental positions of the body, as bending, twisting, jumping, running -and marching. The rhythm of the gymnastic movements is an important feature of the work. The military precision of the drill is relieved by gymnastic games. These train the students to quickness of thought and motion, and serve as a relaxation from mental and bodily tension. The game of basket ball arouses enthusiasm and gives added interest to the regular work. From time to time the members of the senior class conduct the exercises for practice in teaching. All students are required to provide themselves with the cus- tomary suits for gymnastic practice. Psychology. [Miss Goldsmith.] The course in psychology extends throughout the junior year, The aim is to secure a clear and sufficient understanding of (1 ) the processes by which knowledge is acquired and elaborated, (2) the sources of interest and attention, and (3) the functions and training of the will. The development of the various faculties of the mind, and the relation of different branches of study to this process, receive careful attention. The work is oh STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. done so as to secure a good grasp of what is really valuable to a teacher, rather than to spend time upon what is of only specu- lative interest. The various sources of psychological knowledge — introspection, observation of mental phenomena, the study of literature and physiological science — are all recognized as having important uses iu the study of the human mind. Physiology and Hygiene. [Miss Waerex.] Since the physiology of the human body is a phase of biology, the plan of work in the two branches is similar. A careful study is made of the respiratory, the circulatory, the digestive, the excretory, the muscular, the osseous and the nervous sys- tems, and of the special senses. Some attention is given to the effect of alcohol and tobacco upon the human body. Onlv enough anatomy is taught to lead to a clear understand- ing of physiology. The laboratory method is the basis of the work. The work acquaints the student with the structure, the position, the relation and the function of the various organs, with a view to the intelligent application of hygienic principles. Microscopic slides, a life-sized manikin and a human skeleton are valuable aids. Special stress is laid upon the following topics: clothings bathing, food, study, rest, and the effect of muscular action upon the organism as a whole and upon special organs. Defi- nite directions are given for treatment in cases of emergencv. The aim of this course is to impress upon the students the fact that a sound body is an essential factor for the best and highest success in any life work, and to prepare them to teach whatever may be necessary fur the physical as well as the moral and intellectual welfare of those who come under their care. Theory and Practice of Teaching. [Dr. Beckwith.] The course in theory and practice of teaching, conducted bv the principal of the school, extends throughout the senior year. It is intended to develop an understanding of the principles of STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 37 • education, and of their application to school organization and government and to the art of teaching. The observation in the model schools is done in connection with it, and the results are drawn upon extensively to illustrate the class-room discussions. Weekly lectures on Saturday mornings, of which written reports from the students are required, are sometimes introductory to various topics, sometimes summaries of them, and sometimes independent and suggestive discussion of important phases of teaching. At the same time there is a serious attempt to arouse in the students an intelligent appreciation of our indebtedness to great educational leaders for their apprehension of sound principles and for inspiration to the teacher's work. The principal believes that much of the success of a teacher depends upon the ideals with which the work is undertaken. Consequently, it is no small part of the duty of a normal school to see that its students take the right attitude toward their work, that they fully understand and appreciate the nature and extent of the influence of the school upon the child, and that the duty of study and growth is one constantly resting upon teachers. This school will aim faithfully to perform its duty in these respects. History of Education. [Dr. Beckwith.] During each year, for the benefit of advanced students, — provided there should be a sufficient demand to warrant it, — a course of weekly lectures will be given upon the history of education. The course will embrace a survey of the educational ideals of the ancient nations, of the influence of Christianity upon education, and of the various effects of both material and spiritual life and growth, and include especial studies of the lives and influence of such reformers as Luther, Bacon, Comenius, Pestalozzi and Froebel. A portion of the course will be devoted to the especial con- sideration of the development and features of the Massachusetts school system, and of the legislation of this Commonwealth upon educational interests. 38 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Directions and suggestions for reading will be given, and a sufficient number of thorough and exacting tests will be applied to ascertain whether the students have properly performed their share of the work. GENERAL INFORriATION. The Location and Attractions of Salem. No place in north-eastern Massachusetts is more easily acces- sible than Salem. It is on the main line of the eastern division of the Boston & Maine Railroad system, connecting also with the Saugus branch at Lynn. A branch road to Wake'field Junc- tion connects the city with the western division. There is also direct communication with Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Rock- port, Marblehead and intervening points. Trains are frequent and convenient. Salem is also the centre of an extensive net- work of electric railways, which greatly increase the convenience of travel within a radius of ten or fifteen miles. Students com- ing daily to Salem on the steam cars can obtain season tickets at greatly reduced rates. The Boston & Northern Street Rail- way Company also carries students to and from the school at half fare, under certain conditions. Salem is the centre of many interesting historical associations, and within easy reach are the scenes of more important and stirring events than can be found in any other equal area of our country. The scenery, both of seashore and country, in the neighborhood, is exceedingly attractive. There are many libra- ries, besides the free public library, and curious and instructive collections belonging to various literary and antiquarian organi- zations, to which access may be obtained at a slight expense. Lectures are frequent and inexpensive. The churches of the city represent all the religious denominations that are common in New England. The flanagement of the School. The matter of discipline, as that term is used with reference to school management, does not enter into the administration STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 39 of this school. Each student is allowed and is encouraged to exercise the largest degree of personal liberty consistent with the rights of others. The teachers aim to be friends and lead- ers, rather than governors and masters. They will not spare advice, admonition and reproof, if needed ; but their work in such lines will be done with individuals, and in the most helpful and generous spirit. The students who, after full and patient trial, are found unworthy of such consideration, are presumed to be unfit and unlikely to become successful teachers, and will be removed from the school. Others also, who, by no fault of their own, but by the misfortune of conspicuous inaptitude, through physical or mental deficiencies, for the work of teach- ing, will be advised to withdraw, and will not be graduated. Expenses, Aid, Board, etc. Tuition is free to all residents of Massachusetts who declare their intention to teach in the schools of this Commonwealth. Text-books and supplies are free, as in the public schools. Arti- cles used in school work which students may desire to own will be furnished at cost. Students who come to Salem to board are advised to bring with them such text-books of recent date as they may own. To assist those students, residents of the State, who find it difficult to meet the expenses of the course, pecuniary aid is furnished by the State to a limited extent. Applications for this aid must be made in writing, to the principal, and must be accompanied by such evidence as shall satisfy him that the applicant needs the aid. This aid, however, is not furnished to residents of Salem, nor during the first half-year of attend- ance at the school. The expense of board is moderate ; two students rooming together can usually find accommodations within easy distance of the school, including light and heat, at prices ranging upward from three dollars and fifty cents each, per week. A record of places where board may be obtained is kept at the school, and reasonable aid will be given to students who are seeking board- 40 STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. ing places. It is advisable to make inquiries some time before the beginning of the school year. A lunch counter is maintained in the building, from which is served at noon each school day a good variety of wholesome and attractive food, at very reasonable prices. The Library and Reading Room. The school is well equipped with books of reference, and its general library, which is especially strong in works of history, biography, pedagogy, poetry, and dramatic and miscellaneous literature, contains 4,091 volumes, exclusive of a large number of public documents and sample text-books covering a period of many years. The best periodicals of the day are also kept on file. There is a complete card catalogue by titles and authors, and a system of references by topics is also in process of prep- aration . No needless restrictions are placed upon the use of the library and reading room, and the students are encouraged to resort to it freely and constantly. Promptness and Punctuality. 1. Students living at home, on finding themselves likely to be absent more than one day, are desired to make known the fact in writing. 2. Students who are withdrawing from school must return the books and other property of the school, and receive regular dismission. Those who fail to do so promptly must not expect at a later date any recommendation or endorsement from the teachers of the school. 3. Absences for the purpose of teaching or of acting as sub- stitutes for more than one day must be arranged in advance. In general, absence for this purpose during the first year of a student's course will not be regarded with favor. 4. Students must be present at the opening of school after any recess or vacation, and must remain until all are excused. 5. Students boarding in this vicinity, away from their par- STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 41 ents, whether over or under legal age, must keep the principal informed of their addresses. All boarding places are subject to the judgment of the principal. 6. Students boarding in Salem must not make arrangements involving absence from any school . exercise without previously obtaining permission. Lectures. Since the issue of last year's catalogue the teachers and stu- dents of the school have listened to the following lectures : — 1903. March 4. Agent Henry T. Bailey, North Scituate. " Design. 11 March 14. Dr. William T. Hailmann, Xew York. "Common-sense Considerations in Education.* 1 May 16. Supt. B. C. Gregory, Chelsea. " The Conscious Element of Education, according to Froebel." June 24. Annual Graduation, Supt. E. P. Seaver, Boston. " The Teacher's Personal Attitude towards His Work." Nov. 7. Prof. Edward S. Morse, Salem. " Japan." Agent L. Walter Sargent. " The Definite Demands made upon the AVork in Drawing." Prof. Edward S. Morse, Salem. "China." Prof. Edw^ard S. Morse, Salem. "Insect Life." Employment for Graduates. The increase in the number of normal graduates employed in Massachusetts as teachers has been, especially during the past twenty years, very much greater proportionately than the in- crease in the whole number of teachers. But even at the present time less than one-half of all the teachers in the State are normal graduates, and the demand is annually greater than the supply ; especially for the higher grammar grades there is a marked scarcity of strong candidates. This school does not undertake to guarantee positions to its graduates, but it is a fact that promising graduates are rarely without positions six months after graduation. The principal takes pleasure in assisting Xov 10. Dec. 5. Dec 12. 42 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. graduates to obtain such positions as they are qualified to fill. To that end he is glad to correspond or to confer with school authorities, or to be informed as to the degree of success which has attended the efforts of former students. Scholarships for Graduates. There are offered at Harvard University four scholarships, each of an annual value of one hundred fifty dollars, for the benefit of students in the Lawrence Scientific School who are graduates of any reputable normal school in tne United States. Notices to School Officials. All interested persons, especially those connected in any way with educational work, are cordially invited to visit the school, to inspect its building and equipment, or to attend the exercises in its class rooms or model schools at any time and without ceremony. During the summer vacation, either the principal or some other person qualified to give information regarding the school, its work and the conditions of admission will be at the building each forenoon. Requests for catalogues are always promptly honored. Superintendents and other school officials are requested to send to the school copies of their reports, courses of study and other publications of common interest. The courtesy will be appreciated and reciprocated. Every person claiming to be a graduate of this school should be able to show either a diploma or a certificate to the fact of graduation. This evidence should be required in all cases. All students of this school, since Jan. 1, 1900, who have left the school by reason of graduation, or otherwise in good standing, possess either a diploma, a certificate showing the completion of a year's work, or a certificate of honorable dis- missal. The last-named paper is not to be understood as a rec- ommendation of proficiency in scholarship or teaching ability. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 43 CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DECORATIONS OF THE BUILDING. The Commonwealth of Massachu- setts. The Salem Normal Association. Mr. George R. Chapman. Richard Edwards, LL.D. Mrs. C. O. Hood. Mr. James F. Almy. Miss Annie M. Phelps. Mr. Ross Turner. The Class of February, 1857. The Class of February. 1858. The Class of July, 1858. The Class of February, 1859. The Class of July, 1859. The Class of February, 1860. The Class of July, 1861. The Class of January, 1883. The Class of June, 1888. The Class of June, 1891. The Class of June, 1896. The Class of January, 1897. The Class of June, 1897. The Class of 1898. The Class of 1899. The Class of 1900. The Class of 1901. The Class of 1902. The Class of 1903. The Model School Class of 1903. Certain students and friends of Miss Elizabeth Weston. Other teachers and graduates, and others. The following citizens of Salem have generously contributed to the decorations of the model school-rooms : — Mrs. James F. Almy. Mr. George A. Brown. Mr. William O. Chapman. Mr. Robin Damon. Mr. William H. Gove. Mr. George B. Harris. Mrs. William M. Hill. Mr. Frank A. Langmaid. Mr J. Henry Langmaid. Mr. Arthur L. Lougee. Mr. William Messervey. Mr. John M. Raymond. Mr. Ira Vaughn. Mrs. Charles F. Whitney. 44 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Generous The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of CONTRIBUTORS TO THE LIBRARY. contributions to the library have been made by July, 1863. The Class of January, 1885. January, 1869. The Class of June, 1885. January, 1870. The Class of January, 1886. January, 1874. January, 1875. July, 1875. January, 1876. June, 1876. January, 1880. June, 1880. January, 1881. January, 1882. June, 1883. The Class of June, 1886. The Class of January, 1887. The Class of January, 1889. The Class of January, 1890. The Class of January, 1891. The Class of January, 1892. The Class of June, 1892. The Class of June, 1894. Mrs. Thomas Hawken. Many teachers and others. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 45 Register of Students. 1903 = 19 04. Graduates. — Class LXXXIX.— June 24, 1903. Bessie Pierce Bagley, ..... Haverhill. Gertrude Loretto Barrett, . Newburyport. Mary Frances Blanchard, . Danvers. Geneva May Bowden, . . Lanesville. Alice Brown, . . Salem. Ida May Butler, . Ipswich. Kattierine Gertrude Butler, . Peabody. May Clifton Calef, . Danvers. Edith May Carman, . Cambridgeport Celia Mason Choate, . Essex. Elizabeth Anne Clark, . . Marblehead. Stella May Coffin, . . Lynn. Carrie Louise Collins, . . Lynn. Blanche Georgina Conway, . Bradford. Winifred Mary Crockwell, . Medford. Mildred Sanders Davis, . Lynn. Essie May Dennis, . Beverly. Grace Ellingwood Dennis, . Salem. Ellen Catherine Donovan, . Georgetown. Cora Myra Eaton, . . Waltham. Mabel Everett Farnham, . Lynn. Bertha Theresa Fisher, . . Methuen. Mary Nellie Flewelling, . Cambridge. Bertha Frances Flint, . % . Everett. Esther Fogg, . . Everett. Ellen Frances Foley, . Peabody. Grace Hamilton Gardiner, . Lynn. Mary Frances Goggin, . . Peabody. Eula Preston Goodale, . . Danvers. 46 STATE XOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Winifred Belle Goodwillie, Gertrude Griffin, . Gertrude Adelaide Hamlin, Mary Margaret Hannon, Maude Penfield Harmon, Mna Belle Hartford, Anna Frances Hill, Dora Ethel Hodsdon, Edith Yell a Hughes, Annie Louise Jackson, . Harriette Agatha James, Susie Morse Jewett, Lizzie Agnes Killion, . Mary Elizabeth Leonard, Bertha Frances Lovett, . Julia Agnes Mahony, . Mary Etta McKeigue, . Alice Mabel Messer, Nellie Stearns Messer, . Katherine Maria Moynihan, Frances Ednah Xorthrup, Edith May O'Brien, Hattie Hazel Peabody, . Jennie Pamela Peabody, Pearl Martin Pillsbury, Bertha Bancroft Piper, . Cora Belle Poole, . Ada Belle Pratt, . Elizabeth Frances Quinlan, Mary Ellen Quirk, Maude Eliza Richardson, Henry W. Roberts, Esther Samuel, Anna Grace Scannell, . Carrie May Sehroeder, . Ethel Silsby, . Louise Spence, Martha Lufkin Stanwood, Mary Pickett Story, Abigail Marie Sullivan, Emma May Thompson, Winifred Pickett Upton, North Cambridge. Lanesville. North Andover Depot. Peabody. Danvers. Chelsea. Salem. Chelsea. Lynn. Lynn. Salem. Lynn. Maiden. Haverhill. Beverly. Somerville. Bradford. Haverhill. Salem. South Byfield. Lynn. Cambridge. Everett. Danvers. Newburyport. Lynn. Cambridgeport. Lynn. Peabody. Walt ham. Salem. Pigeon Cove. Chelsea. Arlington. Chelsea. Everett. Peabody. Essex. Beverly. Maiden. Melrose. Beverly. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 47 Helen Gertrude White, . Elsie Kimball Woodbury, Ethel Worcester, . Lillian Frances Worth, . Cambridge. Beverly. Somerville. Wakefield. Certificates for One Yeafs Work. Ella Augusta Browne, . Alice Gardner Drake, . Jeremiah Francis Ganey, A.B., Alice Mildred Hilliard, Ph.B., Eva Marietta Macomber, Beatrice Asenath Randall, . Daisy Raymond, . Olive Elizabeth Watson, Helen Stanton Woodman, Haverhill. Kennebunkport, Me. Salem. Swampscott. Westford, Vt. Rochester, ET. H. Beverly. Salem. Melrose. Post=graduate and Special Students. . Westford, Vt. Grace Amira Allen, (Burlington High School, 1900.) Ada Dora Colbath, (Whitefield High School, 1901.) Jennie Clifton Frost, A.B., . (Tufts College, 1901.) Ella Frances Gould, (Nashua Literary Institute.) Florence May Henderson, (Haverhill High School, 1878.) Susie Morse Jewett, (Salem Normal School, 1903.) Jeanie Jeanette Keir, . (Rochester High School, 1900.) Elizabeth Gertrude Saunders, (State Normal School, Plymouth, N Lucy Maria White, (State Normal School, Castine, Me., 1898.) Carrie Edna Willey, Montpelier, Vt. (Montpelier High School, 1895.) . W r hitefield, N. H. . Arlington. . Somerville. . Salem. . Lynn. . Rochester, N. H. . Newmarket, N. H. H., 1894.) . Beverly. Students of the Elementary Course. Agnes Arabel Alexander, .... Gloucester. Susie Marguerite Alexander, . . . Lynn. Alexa Maria Anthony, Lynn. May Agnes Arnold, Salem. 48 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Florence Bertha Atkins, Ida Belle Bailev, . Laura Helen Bailey, Mary Isabelle Bailey, . Helen Edna Baldwin, . May Josephine Barry, . Florence Lillian Black, Rose Marjorie Bourne, . Mary Evangeline Bourn euf, Amy Wyman Bradbury, Emma Josephine Bresnahan, Gladys Amelia Budgell, Mildred Cora Bulfinch, . Katherine Frances Cahill, Margaret Genevieve Callahan, Mary Margaret Callahan, Mary Ann Campbell, . Jennie Winslow Carey, Mabel Clifford Carle, . Hattie Cecilia Carlson, . Alice Veronica Carmichael, Anna Lois Child s, . Katherine Mary Clarke, Sadie Etta Cole, . Alice Veronica Connelly, Theresa Elizabeth Connelly, Gertrude Connor, . Elsie Harriet Cooter, Esther Costello, Agnes Veronica Cragen, Mary Margaret Crane, . Julia Lauretta Cunningham, Rosa Alice Curran, Rebecca Chase Currier, Lillian Anna Curtin, Lena Gushing-, Isabella Kelly Daley, . Bertha Ruby Davis, Gladys Cecelia Davis, . Irena Lucena Day, Elizabeth Esther Dean, Helen M. Dearborn, Somerville. South Lawrence. East Saugus. Haverhill. Peabody. Maiden. West Somerville. Salem. Haverhill. Medford. Medford. Somerville. Swampscott. Lynn. Maiden. Lynn. Cambridgeport. Swampscott. Maiden. Maiden. Cambridge. Henniker, N. H. Ipswich. Lynn. Cambridge. North Andover. Lynn. East Cambridge. Groveland. Salem. Salem. Lynn. Haverhill. Somerville. Chelsea. Salem. Lanesville Medford. Amesbury. Lynn. Wakefield. Everett. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 49 Ellen Julia Delay, Martha Sylvester Derfus, Jennie St. Claire Dickson, Abbie Susan Dodge, Dorrice Downing, . Bessie May Dresser, Bessie Estelle Eayrs, . Katharine Sigrid Enlind, Cathrine May Etheridge, Mary Loretta Feeny, Irene Franklin Fellows, Elizabeth May Ferguson, Mary Agnes Finn, Elleanor Melvina Fitzgerald Ethel May Flanders, Elsie Louise Fogg, Sarah Beulah Frost, Mary May Gainard, Gladys Adell Gale, Ellen Gertrude Galvin, . Sally Garland, Mabel Alice Gauthier, . Cecilia Eugenia Glynn, Mildred Goldsmith, Fanny Irene Goodhue, . Frances Eva Gorman, . Eugenie Goss, Edith Evelyn Gott, Mildred May Graham, . Mabel Hannah Gray, Minnie Griffiths, . Nettie Isabel Haff, Alona Harrington, Alberta Frances Hatfield, Sara Gould Haven, Rena Elizabeth Hemenway Etta Howe Hicks, . Julia Mary Horgan, Marion Louise Howard, Edith Marion Howe, Gertrude Augusta Hunting-ton Frances Cupples Jackson, . Somerville. Somerville. Cambridgeport. Salem. Andover. Salem. Maiden. Peabody. Melrose. East Cambridge. Ipswich. Topsfield. Lynn. Linden. Wakefield. Chelsea. Maiden. Chelsea. Henniker, N. H. Lynn. Gloucester. Cambridge. East Cambridge. Marblehead. North Andover Centre. Haverhill. Lynn. Woburn. Lynn. Maiden. Danvers. North Cambridge. Maiden. Lynn. Chelsea. Andover. Haverhill. Cambridge. Maiden. Woburn. Newburyport. Maiden. 50 STATE XOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Alice Augusta Joues, . Harriet Mary Joues, Lena May Jones, . Nellie Alice Kemp, Margaret Mary Kenney, Margaret Elizabeth Kerrigan. Alice Elizabeth Lane, . G oldie Theresa Lane, . Lena Blanche Lawrence, Susan Elouise Lee, Marjorie Helen Lenox, . Lizzie Adelaide Lewis, . Abraham Charles Lourie, Dora Lena Lourie, Eliza Procter Low, Margaret Mary Mahoney, Winnifred Appleton Marshall, Annie Tsabel McCarthy, Henrietta McConnell, . Margaret McCullough, . Gertrude Philomine McCusker, Mary Beston McDonough, . Mary Ellen McGrath, . Ruth Alma McKay, Blanche Yelma McKenne, . Emma Mabel McKinley, Emily Katharine McVann, . Margaret Angela Millea, Josephine Freeman Minard, Eudora Elizabeth Mittelbach, Edith Marion Moffatt, . Georgia Bernice Morgan, Amy Brown Morrill, Ada Evelyn Moulton, . Cora Lucy Mulrey, Helena Murphy, . Marion Louise Norton, . Mary Louise Norton, Mary Evelyn Nutter, Isabelle Dorothea O'Brien, Blanche Lowell Paine, . Ethel Bird Park, . Gloucester. Arlington. Manchester. Chelsea. Charlestown. Woburn. Feabody. Cambridgeport. Wakefield. Chelsea. Cambridge. © Lynn. Boston. Boston. Beverly. East Cambridge. © Gloucester. Peabody. Somerville. Cambridge. Cambridge. Salem. Cambridge. © Beverly. Middleton. Somerville. Lynn. Salem. Groveland. North Cambridge. Walla Walla, Wash. Groveland. Amesbury. North Hampton, N. H. Cambridge. North Cambridge. © Chelsea. Maiden. Beverly. Lynn. Somerville. Greenwood. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 51 Bessie Maxwell Parker, Carrie Noyes Pease, Mary Isabelle Perkins, . Millicent Grace Perkins, Zulette Potter, Annie Cobb Pottle, Cynthia May Prentice, .. Bertha Ellinor Pringle, Louisa Isabelle Pryor, . Nellie Magdalene Quinn, Edna Merriam Ramsdell, Ida Louise Rand, . Sadie May Eeed, . Lucy Reynolds, Nellie AVinifred Riley, . Marion Elliott Robbins, Ida Helen Rogers, Lucy Agnes Roper, Annie Lavenia Kowe, . Madeline Sayward Rowe, Helen Louise Russell, . Lottie May Ryder, Mary Cecilia Scally, Eliza Lohra Scott, . Lena Seitlen, . Mary Elizabeth Shatswell, Thomas William Sheehan, Katherine Grey Smith, Lillian Frazier Smith, Grace Foster Sneden, Grace Lillian Snow, Mary Gertrude Snow, Clara Alice South wick, Olive Belle Spiller, Abbie Elizabeth Stetson, Mary Gertrude Sullivan, Ellen Elizabeth Sweeney, Ethel Stearns Swett, Florence Ellen Tadgell, Martha Anna Taylor, . Irene Florence Thompson, Helen Barbara Tighe, . Reading. Merrimac. Lynn. Beverly. Marblehead. NewburyjDort. South Medford. North Reading. Portsmouth, N. H. Amesbury. Lynnfield. Somerville. Lowell. Peabody. Melrose. Lynn. Arlington. North Cambridge. Beverly. Gloucester. Somerville. Lynn. Stoneham. Chelsea. Chelsea. Salem. Peabody. Lynn. Beverly. Salem. Everett. Cambridge. West Peabody. Lynn. Dan vers port. Haverhill. Arlington. Amesbury. Salem. Maiden. Melrose. Plymouth. 52 STATE XOFMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Sarah Blackinton Titcomb. Edna Gordon Towle, Alice Buffum Trask, Margaret Phillips True, Grace Anna Turbett, Mabel Emily Turner, . Edna Selrnan Tutt. Rachael Louise Upham, Lucy Agnes Walsh, Margaret Teresa Walsh, Edith May Webber. Charlotte Calhoun Wells, Elizabeth Cecilia Welsh. Clara Emerson Wheeler, Elizabeth Ellen Whitcomb, Mary Veronica Williams, m Amy Florence Wilson, . Edith Smith Wilson, . Marion Louise Wilson, . Gertrude Amelia Wooluer, Constance Ethel wyn Yeames, Merrimac. Salem. Salem. Marblehead. Salem. North Reading;. Marblehead Melrose. Stoneham. Peabody. Waltham. Ames bury. Xorth Cambridge Gloucester. Chelsea. Lynn. Pigeon Cove Beverly. Salem. Everett. Arlington. Summary. Post-graduate and special students, . Students of the elementary course, 10 194 204 Whole number of students from the opening of the school, . 4,976 Whole number of graduates (corrected), 2,613 Xumber of certificates for one year's work, . . .28 Certificate Required for Admission to a Preliminary Examination. .1904. .has been a pupil in the School for three years, and is, in my judgment, prepared to pass the normal school preliminary examination in the follow- ing group or groups, of subjects and the divisions thereof: — Group II Group IV Group III Group V Signature of principal or teacher Address, Certificate of Graduation and Good Character. This is to Certify that M. is a regular graduate of a four years' course of the . High School, and that, to the best of my knowl- edge and belief, he is a person of good moral character. Principal . . 1904 .